Beyond its use in a clinical environment, photoplethysmogram (PPG) is increasingly used for measuring the physiological state of an individual in daily life. This review aims to examine existing research on photoplethysmogram concerning its generation mechanisms, measurement principles, clinical applications, noise definition, pre-processing techniques, feature detection techniques, and post-processing techniques for photoplethysmogram processing, especially from an engineering point of view. We performed an extensive search with the PubMed, Google Scholar, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), ScienceDirect, and Web of Science databases. Exclusion conditions did not include the year of publication, but articles not published in English were excluded. Based on 118 articles, we identified four main topics of enabling PPG: (A) PPG waveform, (B) PPG features and clinical applications including basic features based on the original PPG waveform, combined features of PPG, and derivative features of PPG, (C) PPG noise including motion artifact baseline wandering and hypoperfusion, and (D) PPG signal processing including PPG preprocessing, PPG peak detection, and signal quality index. The application field of photoplethysmogram has been extending from the clinical to the mobile environment. Although there is no standardized pre-processing pipeline for PPG signal processing, as PPG data are acquired and accumulated in various ways, the recently proposed machine learning-based method is expected to offer a promising solution.
Park, Junyung & Seok, Hyeon & Kim, Sang-Su & Shin, Hangsik. (2022). Photoplethysmogram Analysis and Applications: An Integrative Review. Frontiers in Physiology. 12. 10.3389/fphys.2021.808451.